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Damage Control: Recovering from Radiation And Chemotherapy

Published: May 1, 2014.
Released by University of California - San Diego  

Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine report that a protein called beta-catenin plays a critical, and previously unappreciated, role in promoting recovery of stricken hematopoietic stem cells after radiation exposure.

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Researchers Find a Likely Cause of Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumors
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMTs) -- masses of immune cells-- are benign, but poorly understood. Current IMT treatments often have side effects and surgery is sometimes not an option due to the tumor's proximity to vital organs. A better understanding of how IMTs form could spur the development of more effective therapeutics. Researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine have now found that a likely cause of IMT is deficiency in nonsense-mediated RNA decay (NMD), a system cells use to control…

Beach Replenishment Helps Protect Against Storm Erosion During El Niño
A team of researchers at Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California San Diego compared sand levels on several San Diego beaches during the last seven winters. The El Niños of winter 2009-10 and 2015-16 were the two most erosive. Three San Diego County beaches that received imported sand in 2012 were about 10 meters (33 feet) wider, and one to two meters (three to six feet) higher in 2015-16 than in 2009-10, with the coarseness of the sand apparently aiding…

Human Brain Houses Diverse Populations of Neurons, New Research Shows
A team of researchers has developed the first scalable method to identify different subtypes of neurons in the human brain. The research lays the groundwork for "mapping" the gene activity in the human brain and could help provide a better understanding of brain functions and disorders, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, schizophrenia and depression.

Engineers Develop a New Biosensor Chip for Detecting DNA Mutations
Bioengineers at the University of California, San Diego have developed an electrical graphene chip capable of detecting mutations in DNA. Researchers say the technology could one day be used in various medical applications such as blood-based tests for early cancer screening, monitoring disease biomarkers and real-time detection of viral and microbial sequences. The advance was published June 13 in the online early edition of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

X-ray Snapshot of Butterfly Wings Reveals Underlying Physics of Color
A team of physicists that visualized the internal nanostructure of an intact butterfly wing has discovered two physical attributes that make those structures so bright and colorful.

Disjointed: Cell Differences May Explain Why Rheumatoid Arthritis Varies by Location
Researchers at the University of California San Diego School of Medicine, with colleagues in Pennsylvania and China, report that not only are there distinct differences in key cellular processes and molecular signatures between rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) but, more surprisingly, there are joint-specific differences in RA. The findings help explain, in part, why drugs treating RA vary in effect -- why, for example, a treatment that might work in arthritic knees isn't effective in an arthritic hip - and provide a…

Scientists Design Energy-carrying Particles Called 'Topological Plexcitons'
Scientists at UC San Diego, MIT and Harvard University have engineered "topological plexcitons," energy-carrying particles that could help make possible the design of new kinds of solar cells and miniaturized optical circuitry. The researchers report their advance in an article published in the current issue of Nature Communications. Within the Lilliputian world of solid state physics, light and matter interact in strange ways, exchanging energy back and forth between them.

Body's Own Gene Editing System Generates Leukemia Stem Cells
Cancer stem cells are like zombies -- even after a tumor is destroyed, they can keep coming back. These cells have an unlimited capacity to regenerate themselves, making more cancer stem cells and more tumors. Researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine have now unraveled how pre-leukemic white blood cell precursors become leukemia stem cells. The study, published June 9 in Cell Stem Cell, used human cells to define the RNA editing enzyme ADAR1's role in leukemia, and find a…

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U-M Researchers Find New Gene Involved in Blood-forming Stem Cells
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New Drug for Blood Cancers Now in Five Phase II Clinical Trials
Researchers at University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have established the safety and dosing of a new …

Gene Therapy Pioneered at St. Jude Shows Early Success Against 'Bubble Boy' Disease
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