|Mutations in 2 Genes Linked to Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis And Telomere Shortening|
Medicine » Mutations, Genes »
UT Southwestern Medical Center − DALLAS - May 4, 2015 - Researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center have identified mutations in two genes that cause a fatal lung scarring disease known as familial pulmonary fibrosis.
|Warm Oceans Caused Hottest Dust Bowl Years in 1934/36|
Nature » Warm, Ocean »
University of New South Wales − Two ocean hot spots have been found to be the potential drivers of the hottest summers on record for the Central US in 1934 and 1936. The research may also help modern forecasters predict particularly hot summers over the central United States many months out.
|Pollen And Clouds: April Flowers Bring May Showers?|
Nature » Particles, Droplets »
University of Michigan − ANN ARBOR--The main job of pollen is to help seed the next generation of trees and plants, but a new study from the University of Michigan and Texas A&M shows that the grains might also seed clouds. The unexpected findings demonstrate that these wind-carried capsules of genetic material might have an effect on the planet's climate. And they highlight a new link between plants and the atmosphere.
|UH Researchers Create Lens to Turn Smartphone into Microscope|
Technology » Lens, Lenses »
University of Houston − HOUSTON, May 4, 2015 -- Researchers at the University of Houston have created an optical lens that can be placed on an inexpensive smartphone to magnify images by a magnitude of 120, all for just 3 cents a lens.
|Established a Psychological Technique to Helps Smokers Quite Tobacco|
Medicine » Tobacco, Smoking »
University of Granada − An international research project led by scientists from the U. of Granada has demonstrated that motivational interviewing can make smokers see tobacco as something disagreeable, thus helping them to quit the habit. Motivational interviewing is a psychological technique of direct intervention that seeks to produce changes in patient behaviour.
|New Gold Standard Established for Open And Reproducible Research|
Technology » Grosvenor, Advertising »
University of Cambridge − A group of Cambridge computer scientists have set a new gold standard for openness and reproducibility in research by sharing the more than 200GB of data and 20,000 lines of code behind their latest results - an unprecedented degree of openness in a peer-reviewed publication. The researchers hope that this new gold standard will be adopted by other fields, increasing the reliability of research results, especially for work which is publicly funded.
|Low-allergen Soybean Could Have High Impact|
Medicine » Oysters, Soybean »
University of Arizona − In the United States, nearly 15 million people and 1 in 13 children suffer from food allergy. In Arizona alone, every classroom contains at least two children with a food allergy.
|The Random Raman Laser: A New Light Source for the Microcosmos|
Technology » Laser, Lasers »
The Optical Society − WASHINGTON -- In modern microscope imaging techniques, lasers are used as light sources because they can deliver fast pulsed and extremely high-intensity radiation to a target, allowing for rapid image acquisition. However, traditional lasers come with a significant disadvantage in that they produce images with blurred speckle patterns -- a visual artifact that arises because of a property of traditional lasers called "high spatial coherence." These speckles greatly reduce image quality in wide-field microscopy, a common technique for making broad swath images of
|Study Reveals How a Rab Protein Controls HIV-1 Replication|
Biology » Membrane, Proteins »
Rockefeller University Press − HIV-1 replication requires the coordinated movement of the virus's components toward the plasma membrane of an immune cell, where the virions are assembled and ultimately released. A study in The Journal of Cell Biology reveals how a Rab protein that controls intracellular trafficking supports HIV-1 assembly by promoting high levels of an important membrane lipid.
|Malarial Parasites Dodge the Kill|
Medicine » Parasite, Malaria »
Rockefeller University Press − Scientists have uncovered a potential mode of parasite drug resistance in malaria infection, according to a report published in The Journal of Experimental Medicine.
|From Brittle to Plastic in 1 Breath|
Technology » Agarwal, Dislocations »
Rice University − What if peanut brittle, under certain conditions, behaved like taffy? Something like that happens to a two-dimensional dichalcogenide analyzed by scientists at Rice University. Rice researchers calculated that atomically thin layers of molybdenum disulfide can take on the qualities of plastic through exposure to a sulfur-infused gas at the right temperature and pressure.
|Identifying Species Imperiled by the Wildlife Trade May Require a Trip to the Market|
Biology » Birds, Bird »
Princeton University − Scientists, conservationists and governments could have a new weapon in their struggle to gauge -- and halt -- the devastation of the wildlife trade on populations of prized animals: the very markets where the animals are bought and sold.
|Rumors Have It|
Psychology » Political, Nisbet »
Massachusetts Institute of Technology − Bad news, fans of rational political discourse: A study by an MIT researcher shows that attempts to debunk political rumors may only reinforce their strength. "Rumors are sticky," says Adam Berinsky, a professor of political science at MIT, and author of a paper detailing the study. "Corrections are difficult, and in some cases can even make the problem worse."
|Insight into How We Protect Ourselves from Certain Bacteria And Fungi|
Biology » Cells, Immune »
Garvan Institute of Medical Research − Australian scientists have shown that a specific gene determines the development and function of important cells that bridge the gap between our fast-acting 'innate', and slower-acting 'adaptive', immune systems. STAT3, as it's known, helps shield us against a variety of fungal and bacterial infections, and understanding its role may help in finding ways to boost our defenses.
|Disney Research Algorithm Combines Videos from Unstructured Camera Arrays into Panoramas|
Technology » Cameras, Capture »
Disney Research − Even non-professionals may someday be able to create high-quality video panoramas using multiple cameras with the help of an algorithm developed by a team of Disney researchers.
|Ocean Currents Disturb Methane-eating Bacteria|
Nature » Methane, Gas »
CAGE - Center for Arctic Gas Hydrate, Climate and Environment − Offshore the Svalbard archipelago, methane gas is seeping out of the seabed at the depths of several hundred meters. These cold seeps are a home to communities of microorganisms that survive in a chemosynthetic environment - where the fuel for life is not the sun, but the carbon rich greenhouse gas.
|Why Are Avocados So Awesome?|
Chemistry » Cleaning, Gallery »
American Chemical Society − WASHINGTON, May 4, 2015 -- Whether they're in a big bowl of guacamole for your Cinco de Mayo festivities or scooped on top of your salad, avocados enjoy a special place in our hearts and stomachs. On top of being tasty, avocados are a noted superfood with a number of fantastic health benefits. This week, Reactions has mashed up some fantastic avocado facts, as well as some cooking tips from the pros.
|The Future Is Now: Reining in Procrastination|
Psychology » Days, Oyserman »
University of Southern California − Procrastination is the thief of time that derails New Year's resolutions and delays saving for college or retirement, but researchers have found a way to collar it. The trick? Think of the future as now. "The simplified message that we learned in these studies is if the future doesn't feel imminent, then, even if it's important, people won't start working on their goals," said Daphna Oyserman, lead researcher and co-director of the USC Dornsife Mind and Society Center.
|Ocean Fronts Improve Climate And Fishery Production, Study Finds|
Nature » Zooplankton, Fronts »
University of Georgia − Athens, Ga. -- A recent study by the University of Georgia found that ocean fronts--separate regions of warm and cool water as well as salt and fresh water -- act to increase production in the ocean.
|Study: Generic Transplant Drugs as Good as Brand Name|
Medicine » Tacrolimus, Alloway »
University of Cincinnati Academic Health Center − CINCINNATI--A University of Cincinnati (UC)-led research team has found that generic formulations of tacrolimus, a drug used post-transplant to lower the risk of organ rejection, are just as good as the name-brand version.
|NIH-funded Study Points Way Forward for Retinal Disease Gene Therapy|
Medicine » Gene, Therapy »
National Eye Institute − Gene therapy for Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), an inherited disorder that causes vision loss starting in childhood, improved patients' eyesight and the sensitivity of the retina within weeks of treatment. Both of these benefits, however, peaked one to three years after treatment and then diminished, according to results from an ongoing clinical trial funded by the National Eye Institute (NEI), part of the National Institutes of Health.
|Young People Think Friends Are More at Risk of Cyberbullying|
Psychology » Millennials, Gay »
British Psychological Society − Young people are aware of the risks of cyberbullying but perceive others as being more at risk than themselves. Young women are more vulnerable to this perception than young men. This is the finding of a study by Dr Lucy Betts and Sondos Metwally from Nottingham Trent University (NTU) that will be presented as part of the poster presentation session at the British Psychological Society's Annual Conference next week (Thursday 7 May 2015) hosted in Liverpool.
|School Reform in Post-Katrina New Orleans Harmful to Black Community, Scholars Say|
Economics » Schools, Charter »
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign − CHAMPAIGN, Ill. -- By most media accounts, education reform in post-Katrina New Orleans is a success. Test scores and graduation rates are up, and students once trapped in failing schools have their choice of charter schools throughout the city.
|Long-term Galactic Cosmic Ray Exposure Leads to Dementia-like Cognitive Impairments|
Medicine » Ca2, Hippocampus »
University of California - Irvine − Irvine, Calif. -- What happens to an astronaut's brain during a mission to Mars? Nothing good. It's besieged by destructive particles that can forever impair cognition, according to a UC Irvine radiation oncology study appearing in the May 1 edition of Science Advances.
|Inanimate Beads Behave in Lifelike Ways|
Physics » Bungau, Palacci »
University of California - San Diego − Scientists have created microbe-sized beads that can utilize energy in the environment to self-propel upstream by purely physical means. Life is hard to define, but metabolism, mobility and replication are three commonly agreed elements. The beads are not alive, but they meet two of these three requirements.
|First-year Undergrad Identifies Method to Potentially Save Money in Health Care|
Medicine » Training, Societies »
University of Chicago − When the 2012 presidential election heightened focus on healthcare reform, Pranav Puri's interest in politics called his attention to a major development at his hometown hospital. In February 2012, UnityPoint Trinity Hospital in Rock Island, Ill., became one of the first in the country to implement the American College of Cardiology's appropriate use criteria (AUC) for coronary revascularization.
|Lousy Sockeye Are Lousy Competitors|
Nature » Sockeye, Salmon »
Simon Fraser University − With major funding from several groups, including NSERC, an SFU doctoral student has made a key discovery regarding Fraser River sockeye's vulnerability to sea lice.
|The Language of Invention: Most Innovations Are Rephrasings of Past Technologies|
Technology » Ceze, Youn »
Santa Fe Institute − Most new patents are combinations of existing ideas and pretty much always have been, even as the stream of fundamentally new core technologies has slowed, according to a new paper in the Journal of the Roayl Society Interface by Santa Fe Institute researchers Hyejin Youn, Luis Bettencourt, Jose Lobo, and Deborah Strumsky.
|Species' Evolutionary Choice: Disperse Or Adapt?|
Biology » Theory, Dispersal »
Santa Fe Institute − Dispersal and adaptation are two fundamental evolutionary strategies available to species given an environment. Generalists, like dandelions, send their offspring far and wide. Specialists, like alpine flowers, adapt to the conditions of a particular place.
|Global Decline of Large Herbivores May Lead to an 'Empty Landscape'|
Nature » Horn, Hunting »
Oregon State University − CORVALLIS, Ore. - The decline of the world's large herbivores, especially in Africa and parts of Asia, is raising the specter of an "empty landscape" in some of the most diverse ecosystems on the planet, according to a newly published study. Many populations of animals such as rhinoceroses, zebras, camels, elephants and tapirs are diminishing or threatened with extinction in grasslands, savannahs, deserts and forests, scientists say.
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