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Eating Air, Making Fuel
Biology » Bacterium, Coli »
Weizmann Institute of Science − All life on the planet relies, in one way or another, on a process called carbon fixation: the ability of plants, algae and certain bacteria to "pump" carbon dioxide (CO2) from the environment, add solar or other energy and turn it into the sugars that are the required starting point needed for life processes. At the top of the food chain are different organisms (some of which think, mistakenly, that they are "more advanced") that use the opposite means of survival: they eat…
How Does Climate Affect Violence? Researchers Offer New Theory
Psychology » Climates, Culture »
Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam − Researchers have long struggled to explain why some violent crime rates are higher near the equator than other parts of the world. Now, a team of researchers have developed a model that could help explain why. This new model goes beyond the simple fact that hotter temperatures seem to be linked to more aggressive behavior. Paul van Lange, a professor of psychology at Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam along with Maria I. Rinderu (VU Amsterdam) and Brad Bushman, a professor of psychology at The Ohio…
Eyewitnesses Who Collaborate Make Fewer Mistakes in Police Interview
Psychology » Witnesses, Eyewitness »
Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam − Witnesses correct each other's errors. Two recently published research studies by legal psychologists Annelies Vredeveldt and Peter van Koppen at Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam show that witnesses make fewer errors when they are interviewed together than when they are interviewed separately. This stands in sharp contrast with current police guidelines to always interview witnesses separately.
Not Only Trauma but Also the Reversal of Trauma Is Inherited
Medicine » Childhood, Children »
University of Zurich − Traumatic experiences in childhood increase the risk of developing behavioral and psychiatric disorders later in life. It is also known that the consequences of a trauma can likewise be observed in the children of people affected even if those children have themselves not experienced any trauma. However, childhood trauma in some conditions can also help individuals deal better with difficult situations later in life. This ability, too, is passed onto following generations. These findings have recently been uncovered by Isabelle Mansuy, Professor of…
Faster Detection of Pathogens in the Lungs
Medicine » Infection, Bacteria »
University of Zurich − What used to take several weeks is now possible in two days: thanks to new molecular-based methods, mycobacterial pathogens that cause pulmonary infections or tuberculosis can now be detected much more quickly. Time-consuming bacteria cultures no longer need to be taken from the patient samples, meaning that a suitable therapy can be started quickly.
Nanotechnology And Math Deliver Two-in-one Punch for Cancer Therapy Resistance
Medicine » Resistance, Cancer »
University of Waterloo − Math, biology and nanotechnology are becoming strange, yet effective bed-fellows in the fight against cancer treatment resistance. Researchers at the University of Waterloo and Harvard Medical School have engineered a revolutionary new approach to cancer treatment that pits a lethal combination of drugs together into a single nanoparticle.
How Well Do Facial Recognition Algorithms Cope with a Million Strangers?
Technology » Face, Recognition »
University of Washington − In the last few years, several groups have announced that their facial recognition systems have achieved near-perfect accuracy rates, performing better than humans at picking the same face out of the crowd. But those tests were performed on a dataset with only 13,000 images -- fewer people than attend an average professional U.S. soccer game. What happens to their performance as those crowds grow to the size of a major U.S. city?
Female Blue Tits Sing in the Face of Danger
Biology » Decoys, Males »
University of Veterinary Medicine -- Vienna − Until now, the singing behaviour of songbirds had been mainly associated with competitive behaviour and the search for a partner. Moreover, males had long been considered to be the more active singer. Females were compared to the behaviour of the males and were seen as relatively "lazy" with regard to singing.
New Research Uncovers Why an Increase in Probability Feels Riskier Than a Decrease
Psychology » Change, Bullies »
University of Toronto − Probability estimates are constantly changing. A 20 per cent chance of rain suddenly goes to 30 per cent and we start thinking about packing an umbrella. But how differently do we react when a forecast goes from a 40 per cent chance of rain down to 30? According to a new U of T study, the probability of something happening can feel more or less likely to happen depending on an upward or downward change in an estimate.
Fix for 3-billion-year-old Genetic Error Could Dramatically Improve Genetic Sequencing
Biology » Rna, Dna »
University of Texas at Austin − For 3 billion years, one of the major carriers of information needed for life, RNA, has had a glitch that creates errors when making copies of genetic information. Researchers at The University of Texas at Austin have developed a fix that allows RNA to accurately proofread for the first time. The new discovery, published June 23 in the journal Science, will increase precision in genetic research and could dramatically improve medicine based on a person's genetic makeup.
Salmonella in Meat Products Reduced by 90% in New Research
Medicine » Meat, Food »
University of Nevada, Reno − RENO, Nev. - An old technology that uses natural bacteria predators, called bacteriophages, is the focus of new research at the University of Nevada, Reno. The technique is being used to reduce salmonella bacteria in meat products. Assistant Professor Amilton de Mello, from the College of Agriculture, Biotechnology and Natural Resources at the University of Nevada, Reno, presented his research at the international American Meat Science Association's conference that ends today in Texas.
Visual Cloud Computing Methods Could Help First Responders in Disaster Scenarios
Technology » Cloud, Data »
University of Missouri-Columbia − COLUMBIA, Mo. - In natural or man-made disasters, the ability to process massive amounts of visual electronic data quickly and efficiently could mean the difference between life and death for survivors. Visual data created by numerous security cameras, personal mobile devices and aerial video provide useful data for first responders and law enforcement. That data can be critical in terms of knowing where to send emergency personnel and resources, tracking suspects in man-made disasters, or detecting hazardous materials. Recently, a group of computer…
Starving Stem Cells May Enable Scientists to Build Better Blood Vessels
Medicine » Stem, Embryonic »
University of Illinois at Chicago − Researchers from the University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine have uncovered how changes in metabolism of human embryonic stem cells help coax them to mature into specific cell types -- and may improve their function in engineered organs or tissues.
Better Information Needed to Understand Extreme Weather
Nature » Extreme, Events »
University of Exeter − Scientists need more credible and relevant information to help communities become more resilient to extreme weather events such as floods, a University of Exeter expert has said. Researchers need improved techniques to be able to understand why the climate is changing, and the part humans play in this process, according to Professor Peter Stott, who also leads the Climate Monitoring and Attribution team at the Met Office.
Should I Stay Or Should I Go?
Nature » People, Bocinsky »
University of Delaware − Millions of people will likely be in harm's way as a new hurricane season unfolds in the United States. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration predicts up to eight hurricanes in the 2016 season, and as many as four major storms with winds of 111 miles per hour or more. What people do - or don't do - to get out of harm's way is of keen interest to disaster and emergency response officials.
Warning from the Past: Future Global Warming Could Be Even Warmer
Nature » Petm, Zeebe »
University of Copenhagen - Niels Bohr Institute − Future global warming will not only depend on the amount of emissions from man-made greenhouse gasses, but will also depend on the sensitivity of the climate system and response to feedback mechanisms. By reconstructing past global warming and the carbon cycle on Earth 56 million years ago, researchers from the Niels Bohr Institute among others have used computer modelling to estimate the potential perspective for future global warming, which could be even warmer than previously thought. The results are published in the scientific…
Sex with the Lights On
Biology » Species, Richness »
University of California - Santa Barbara − When you're a firefly, finding "the one" can change the world. Literally. A new study by UCSB evolutionary biologists Todd Oakley and Emily Ellis demonstrates that for fireflies, octopuses and other animals that choose mates via bioluminescent courtship, sexual selection increases the number of species -- thereby impacting global diversity. Their results appear in the journal Current Biology.
Simulations Foresee Hordes of Colliding Black Holes in LIGO's Future
Space » Ligo, Gravitational »
University of Chicago − New calculations predict that the Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory (LIGO) will detect approximately 1,000 mergers of massive black holes annually once it achieves full sensitivity early next decade.
Human Brain Houses Diverse Populations of Neurons, New Research Shows
Biology » Neurons, Brain »
University of California - San Diego − A team of researchers has developed the first scalable method to identify different subtypes of neurons in the human brain. The research lays the groundwork for "mapping" the gene activity in the human brain and could help provide a better understanding of brain functions and disorders, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, schizophrenia and depression.
Small Brain - Astounding Performance
Biology » Fish, Water »
University of Bonn − The elephantnose fish explores objects in its surroundings by using its eyes or its electrical sense - sometimes both together. Zoologists at the University of Bonn and a colleague from Oxford have now found out how complex the processing of these sensory impressions is. With its tiny brain, the fish achieves performance comparable to that of humans or mammals. The advance results have been published online in the "Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America" (PNAS). The…
Energy from Sunlight: Further Steps Towards Artificial Photosynthesis
Physics » Photosystem, Photosynthesis »
University of Basel − Chemists from the Universities of Basel and Zurich in Switzerland have come one step closer to generating energy from sunlight: for the first time, they were able to reproduce one of the crucial phases of natural photosynthesis with artificial molecules. Their results have been published by the journal Angewandte Chemie (international edition).
State Laws Aimed at Curbing Opioid Abuse May Not Be Working for One Group with High Rates of Use
Medicine » Opioid, Opioids »
The Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy & Clinical Practice − Lebanon, NH -- A new study by researchers from The Dartmouth Institute of Health Policy and Clinical Practice and UCLA School of Law found state laws aimed at curbing prescription opioid abuse have had no measurable effect on opioid use by a vulnerable population with high rates of use.
Sea Star Death Triggers Ecological Domino Effect
Biology » Sea, Urchin »
Simon Fraser University − A new study by Simon Fraser University marine ecologists Jessica Schultz, Ryan Cloutier and Isabelle Côté has discovered that a mass mortality of sea stars resulted in a domino effect on B.C.'s West Coast Howe Sound marine ecology.
The Use of Non-fit Messaging May Improve Patient Choices
Psychology » Goals, Oyserman »
Society for Personality and Social Psychology − When it comes to helping patients make the best choices for themselves, sometimes you have to challenge their usual way of dealing with the world, according to new research published by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology.
Where Do Rubber Trees Get Their Rubber?
Biology » Genes, Sheep »
RIKEN − Researchers at the RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resource Science (CSRS) in Japan along with collaborators at Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) have succeeded in decoding the genome sequence for Hevea brasiliensis, the natural rubber tree native to Brazil. Published in Scientific Reports, the study reports a draft genome sequence that covers more than 93% of expressed genes, and pinpoints regions specific to the biosynthesis of rubber.
Proteins Put Up with the Roar of the Crowd
Biology » Dna, Protein »
Rice University − HOUSTON - (June 23, 2016) - It gets mighty crowded around your DNA, but don't worry: According to Rice University researchers, your proteins are nimble enough to find what they need. Rice theoretical scientists studying the mechanisms of protein-DNA interactions in live cells showed that crowding in cells doesn't hamper protein binding as much as they thought it did.
Computer Sketches Set to Make Online Shopping Much Easier
Technology » Photos, Object »
Queen Mary University of London − A computer program that recognises sketches pioneered by scientists from Queen Mary University of London (QMUL) could help consumers shop more efficiently. The sketches of a pair of shoes or piece of furniture, for example, are drawn directly by hand on a touchscreen and recognised using a sophisticated image retrieval system, where the top 10 retrieval accuracy is close to 100 per cent on some object categories so that it always displays the desired product on the first page.
Researchers Offer New Theory on How Climate Affects Violence
Psychology » Climates, Culture »
Ohio State University − COLUMBUS, Ohio -- Researchers have long struggled to explain why some violent crime rates are higher near the equator than other parts of the world. Now, a team of researchers have developed a model that could help explain why. This new model goes beyond the simple fact that hotter temperatures seem to be linked to more aggressive behavior.
Nanoscientists Develop the 'Ultimate Discovery Tool'
Chemistry » Nanowires, Nanoparticles »
Northwestern University − The discovery power of the gene chip is coming to nanotechnology. A Northwestern University research team is developing a tool to rapidly test millions and perhaps even billions or more different nanoparticles at one time to zero in on the best particle for a specific use.
Analysis of Genetic Repeats Suggests Role for DNA Instability in Schizophrenia
Medicine » Genome, Dna »
Nagoya University − International researchers centered at Nagoya University use a highly sensitive technique to identify significantly more DNA sequence repeats in patients with schizophrenia than in control individuals, and outline a possible link between genome instability and disease.

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