|Trial And Error in Viral Evolution: The Difference Between Fading Out, Pandemic|
Biology » Archaea, Virus »
Virginia Tech − Viruses evolve quickly. A small tweak to the genetic makeup of a mostly mild strain of influenza can give rise to the next pandemic. An equally small change to the same strain in a different setting can fade it into obscurity. The right trait at the right time is everything.
|MD Anderson Study Uncovers Early Genetic Changes in Premalignant Colorectal Tissue|
Medicine » Mutations, Cancer »
University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center − Researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center have discovered mutations that may fuel early cancer growth in precancerous colorectal tissue from high-risk patients.
|Rare Evolutionary Event Detected in University of Texas Lab|
Biology » Introns, Dna »
University of Texas at Austin − It took nearly a half trillion tries before researchers at The University of Texas at Austin witnessed a rare event and perhaps solved an evolutionary puzzle about how introns, non-coding sequences of DNA located within genes, multiply in a genome. The results, published today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, address fundamental questions about the evolution of new species and could expand our understanding of gene expression and the causes of diseases such as cancer.
|Making Virus Sensors Cheap And Simple: New Method Detects Single Viruses in Urine|
Biology » Virus, Ebola »
University of Texas at Austin − Scientists at The University of Texas at Austin have developed a new method to rapidly detect a single virus in urine, as reported this week in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. While the technique presently works on just one virus, scientists say it could be adapted to detect a range of viruses that plague humans, including Ebola, Zika and HIV.
|Did Human-like Intelligence Evolve to Care for Helpless Babies?|
Biology » Pregnancy, Moms »
University of Rochester − A new study from the University of Rochester suggests that human intelligence might have evolved in response to the demands of caring for infants. Steven Piantadosi and Celeste Kidd, assistant professors in brain and cognitive sciences, developed a novel evolutionary model in which the development of high levels of intelligence may be driven by the demands of raising offspring. Their study is available online in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences' Early Edition.
|Exercise, Future Anticancer Therapy?|
Medicine » Prostate, Cancer »
University of Montreal Hospital Research Centre (CRCHUM) − Montreal (Quebec), May 24, 2016 - At age 70, Alfred Roberts plays hockey twice a week. Nothing special, right? Except that for three years he has had advanced prostate cancer, which has spread to his bones. "I've always been active. Hockey keeps me in shape and keeps my mind off things. I've got friends that have played until age 80, and my goal is to beat them!" said the veteran stick handler.
|Extreme Beliefs Often Mistaken for Insanity, New Study Finds|
Psychology » Violence, Psychiatric »
University of Missouri-Columbia − In the aftermath of violent acts such as mass shootings, many people assume mental illness is the cause. After studying the 2011 case of Norwegian mass murderer Anders Breivik, University of Missouri School of Medicine researchers are suggesting a new forensic term to classify non-psychotic behavior that leads to criminal acts of violence.
|UMass Amherst Researchers Untangle Disease-related Protein Misfolding|
Biology » Folding, Fold »
University of Massachusetts at Amherst − AMHERST, Mass. - Though research on protein folding has progressed over the past few decades toward better understanding of human metabolism and the diseases associated with misfolding, important discoveries are still being made by teams who can bring special techniques and tools to bear on these complex cellular processes.
|Study Finds Little Change in the IMF's Policy Advice, Despite Rhetoric of Reform|
Economics » Imf, America »
University of Cambridge − A new study, the largest of its kind, has systematically examined International Monetary Fund (IMF) policies over the past three decades. It found that--despite claims to have reformed their practices following the global financial crisis--the IMF has in fact ramped up the number of conditions imposed on borrower nations to pre-crisis levels.
|Global Data Shows Inverse Relationship, Shift in Human Use of Fire|
Nature » Fire, Fires »
University of Colorado at Boulder − Humans use fire for heating, cooking, managing lands and, more recently, fueling industrial processes. Now, research from the University of Colorado has found that these various means of using fire are inversely related to one another, providing new insight into how people are changing the face of fire.
|Astronomers Confirm Faintest Early-universe Galaxy Ever Seen|
Space » Gn-Z11, Galaxy »
University of California - Los Angeles − An international team of scientists, including two professors and three graduate students from UCLA, has detected and confirmed the faintest early-universe galaxy ever. Using the W. M. Keck Observatory on the summit on Mauna Kea in Hawaii, the researchers detected the galaxy as it was 13 billion years ago. The results were published in the Astrophysical Journal Letters.
|Squids on the Rise as Oceans Change|
Biology » Sturgeon, Tarsier »
University of Adelaide − Unlike the declining populations of many fish species, the number of cephalopods (octopus, cuttlefish and squid) has increased in the world's oceans over the past 60 years, a University of Adelaide study has found. The international team, led by researchers from the University's Environment Institute, compiled a global database of cephalopod catch rates to investigate long-term trends in abundance, published in Cell Press journal Current Biology.
|New Research Confirms Continued, Unabated And Large-scale Amphibian Declines|
Nature » Amphibian, Bsal »
US Geological Survey − LAUREL, Md. -- New U.S. Geological Survey-led research suggests that even though amphibians are severely declining worldwide, there is no smoking gun - and thus no simple solution - to halting or reversing these declines.
|A History of Snowfall on Greenland, Hidden in Ancient Leaf Waxes|
Nature » Arctic, Ice »
University at Buffalo − BUFFALO, N.Y. -- The history of Greenland's snowfall is chronicled in an unlikely place: the remains of aquatic plants that died long ago, collecting at the bottom of lakes in horizontal layers that document the passing years. Using this ancient record, scientists are attempting to reconstruct how Arctic precipitation fluctuated over the past several millennia, potentially influencing the size of the Greenland Ice Sheet as the Earth warmed and cooled.
|Traveling Wave Drives Magnetic Particles|
Physics » Mass, Neutrinos »
Springer − As our technology downsizes, scientists often operate in microscopic-scale jungles, where modern-day explorers develop new methods for transporting microscopic objects of different sizes across non uniform environments, without losing them. Now, Pietro Tierno and Arthur Straube from the University of Barcelona, Spain, have developed a new method for selectively controlling, via a change in magnetic field, the aggregation or disaggregation of magnetically interacting particles of two distinct sizes in suspension in a liquid. Previous studies only focused on one particle size. These results,
|Scientists Find Sustainable Solutions for Oysters in the Future by Looking into the Past|
Nature » Oysters, Oyster »
Smithsonian − Oysters are keystone organisms in estuaries around the world, influencing water quality, constructing habitat and providing food for humans and wildlife. Yet their populations in the Chesapeake Bay and elsewhere have dramatically declined after more than a century of overfishing, pollution, disease and habitat degradation. Smithsonian scientists and colleagues, however, have conducted the first bay-wide, millennial-scale study of oyster harvesting in the Chesapeake, revealing a sustainable model for future oyster restoration. Their research is published in the May 23 issue of the Proceedings
|SwRI Scientists Discover Fresh Lunar Craters|
Space » Lunar, Impact »
Southwest Research Institute − San Antonio -- May 23, 2016 -- A Southwest Research Institute-led team of scientists discovered two geologically young craters -- one 16 million, the other between 75 and 420 million, years old -- in the Moon's darkest regions.
|Rice Study Decodes Genetic Circuitry for Bacterial Spore Formation|
Biology » Bacteria, Clays »
Rice University − A team led by Rice University bioengineering researchers has decoded the mechanism that some bacteria use to make life-or-death decisions during extremely tough times.
|Rice De-icer Gains Anti-icing Properties|
Technology » Grain, Graphene »
Rice University − Rice University scientists have advanced their graphene-based de-icer to serve a dual purpose. The new material still melts ice from wings and wires when conditions get too cold. But if the air is above 7 degrees Fahrenheit, ice won't form at all.
|Purdue Research May Expand Engineered T-cell Cancer Treatment|
Medicine » Cancer, Cells »
Purdue University − WEST LAFAYETTE, Ind. -- Purdue University researchers may have figured out a way to call off a cancer cell assassin that sometimes goes rogue and assign it a larger tumor-specific "hit list."
|A Single Enzyme with the Power of Three Could Offer Shortcut to Therapeutic Target|
Medicine » Hif-1alpha, Hif-1α »
Purdue University − WEST LAFAYETTE, Ind. -- Researchers identified a single enzyme doing the work of a trio thought necessary to control a common cellular signaling process being pursued as a therapeutic target.
|Programmable Materials Find Strength in Molecular Repetition|
Biology » Squid, Reflectin »
Penn State − Synthetic proteins based on those found in a variety of squid species' ring teeth may lead the way to self-healing polymers carefully constructed for specific toughness and stretchability that might have applications in textiles, cosmetics and medicine, according to Penn State researchers.
|Ivy's Powerful Grasp Could Lead to Better Medical Adhesives, Stronger Battle Armor|
Biology » Adhesive, Ivy »
Ohio State University − COLUMBUS, Ohio - English ivy's natural glue might hold the key to new approaches to wound healing, stronger armor for the military and maybe even cosmetics with better staying power. New research from The Ohio State University illuminates the tiny particles responsible for ivy's ability to latch on so tight to trees and buildings that it can withstand hurricanes and tornadoes. (Not to mention infuriate those trying to rid their homes of the vigorous green climber.)
|Listening to Calls of the Wild|
Biology » Language, Learning »
Northwestern University − EVANSTON, Ill. --- Even before infants understand their first words, they have already begun to link language and thought. Listening to language boosts infant cognition. New evidence provides even greater insight into the crucial role of language exposure in infants' first months of life, according to Northwestern University research.
|Why Children Confuse Simple Words|
Biology » Ice, Anemones »
Massachusetts Institute of Technology − Imagine, for a moment, you are a parent trying to limit how much dessert your sugar-craving young children can eat. "You can have cake or ice cream," you say, confident a clear parental guideline has been laid out.
|How Our Emotions Affect Store Prices|
Psychology » Products, Prices »
Massachusetts Institute of Technology − Let's say you've just found a nice jacket in a store and are deciding whether to buy it. It's a little pricey, so should you wait and hope it goes on sale in the future? Perhaps. Then again, the jacket might go out of stock before that happens, and you might never acquire it at all. Is it worth paying more now to avoid that feeling of regret?
|Low- And High-birthweight Babies Appear at Increased Risk for Cardiovascular Disease|
Medicine » Fat, Diabetes »
Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University − For reasons that remain unclear at least in the smaller babies, both birthweight extremes appear to increase the likelihood of early development of dangerous fat around major organs in the abdomen that significantly increases these risks, said Dr. Brian Stansfield, neonatologist at the Children's Hospital of Georgia and the Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University.
|Attosecond Physics: A Switch for Light-wave Electronics|
Technology » Light, Optical »
Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München − Light waves could in principle be used to drive future transistors. Since the electromagnetic waves of light oscillate approximately one million times in a billionth of a second, i.e. at petahertz (PHz) frequencies, optoelectronic computers could attain switching rates 100,000 times higher than current digital electronic systems. However, to achieve this goal, we will need a better understanding of the sub-atomic electron motion induced by the ultrafast electric field of light. Now a team led by Ferenc Krausz, who holds a Chair in
|African-American Girls in Low-income, High-crime Neighborhoods Experience Threats, Objectification|
Psychology » Girls, Boys »
Georgia State University − ATLANTA--African-American girls in high-risk neighborhoods report encounters with aggression and sexual objectification, according to Georgia State University researchers. In a recent study published in the journal School Psychology Forum, African-American girls in the fifth, sixth and seventh grades shared their experiences with strained relationships, recurring violence, internalized stereotypes and objectifying sexual activities.
|New Technique Controls Autonomous Vehicles on a Dirt Track|
Technology » Fish, Vehicles »
Georgia Institute of Technology − A Georgia Institute of Technology research team has devised a novel way to help keep a driverless vehicle under control as it maneuvers at the edge of its handling limits. The approach could help make self-driving cars of the future safer under hazardous road conditions.
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