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WSU 'Deadly Force' Lab Finds Racial Disparities in Shootings
Psychology » Officers, Police »
Washington State University − SPOKANE, Wash.—Participants in an innovative Washington State University study of deadly force were more likely to feel threatened in scenarios involving black people. But when it came time to shoot, participants were biased in favor of black suspects, taking longer to pull the trigger against them than against armed white or Hispanic suspects.
Observing the Onset of a Magnetic Substorm
Space » Reconnection, Magnetic »
Wiley − Magnetic substorms, the disruptions in geomagnetic activity that cause brightening of aurora, may sometimes be driven by a different process than generally thought, a new study in the Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics shows.
Aging Gracefully: Diving Seabirds Shed Light on Declines with Age
Biology » Metabolic, Neumann »
Wiley − Scientists who studied long-lived diving birds, which represent valuable models to examine aging in the wild, found that blood oxygen stores, resting metabolism and thyroid hormone levels all declined with age, although diving performance did not. Apparently, physiological changes do occur with age in long-lived species, but they may have no detectable effect on behavioral performance.
Scientists Find Possible Neurobiological Basis for Tradeoff Between Honesty, Self-interest
Psychology » Cortex, Prefrontal »
Virginia Tech − What's the price of your integrity? Tell the truth; everyone has a tipping point. We all want to be honest, but at some point, we'll lie if the benefit is great enough. Now, scientists have confirmed the area of the brain in which we make that decision. The result was published online this week in Nature Neuroscience.
Neurons in Human Skin Perform Advanced Calculations
Biology » Neurons, Brain »
Umea University − Neurons in human skin perform advanced calculations, previously believed that only the brain could perform. This is according to a study from Umeå University in Sweden published in the journal Nature Neuroscience. A fundamental characteristic of neurons that extend into the skin and record touch, so-called first-order neurons in the tactile system, is that they branch in the skin so that each neuron reports touch from many highly-sensitive zones on the skin.
Computer Simulations Visualize Ion Flux
Biology » Channel, Sodium »
University of Vienna − Ion channels are involved in many physiological and pathophysiological processes throughout the human body. A young team of researchers led by pharmacologist Anna Stary-Weinzinger from the Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Vienna investigated how ion flux through a voltage gated sodium ion channel works in detail. Since this process is incredibly fast (up to 100 million ions per seconds), computer simulations were performed to visualize sodium flux "in slow motion".
Future Solar Panels
Technology » Solar, Cells »
University of the Basque Country − The solar panels we see tend to be rigid and black. Organic photovoltaic technology, by contrast, enables more translucent and more flexible solar panels in a range of colours to be manufactured. But this technology needs to meet certain requirements if it is to be accepted on the market: greater efficiency, longer duration and low production cost. So this research has set out "to analyse the capacity new materials have to absorb solar energy as well as to seek appropriate strategies to move…
Underwater Grass Comeback Bodes Well for Chesapeake Bay
Nature » Photography, Aerial »
University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science − CAMBRIDGE, MD (September 2, 2014)—The Susquehanna Flats, a large bed of underwater grasses near the mouth of the Susquehanna River, virtually disappeared from the upper Chesapeake Bay after Tropical Storm Agnes more than 40 years ago. However, the grasses mysteriously began to come back in the early 2000s. Today, the bed is one of the biggest and healthiest in the Bay, spanning some 20 square miles. A new study by scientists at the University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science explores what's behind…
Scientists Obtain New Data on the Weather 10,000 Years Ago from Sediments of a Lake in Sierra Nevada
Nature » Dust, Particles »
University of Granada − A research project which counts with the participation of the University of Granada has revealed new data on the climate change that took place in the Iberian Peninsula around the mid Holocene (around 6.000 years ago), when the amount of atmospheric dust coming from the Sahara increased. The data came from a study of the sediments found in an Alpine lake in Sierra Nevada (Granada)
Many Nurses Unprepared to Meet Dying Patients
Psychology » Death, Legacy »
University of Gothenburg − Most nurses in their work care for patients who are dying. A study of more than 200 students has shown that many nurses in training feel unprepared and anxious when faced with the prospect of meeting patients during end-of-life care.
Migrating Birds Sprint in Spring, but Take Things Easy in Autumn
Biology » Birds, Bird »
Springer − Passerine birds, also known as perching birds, that migrate by night tend to fly faster in spring than they do in autumn to reach their destinations. This seasonal difference in flight speed is especially noticeable among birds that only make short migratory flights, says researcher Cecilia Nilsson of Lund University in Sweden, in Springer's journal Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology.
Chinese Scientists' Team Efforts in Dissecting Rice Complex Agronomic Traits in Recent Years
Biology » Rice, Sorghum »
Science China Press − Rice is a main food source for more than half of the global population and is a model plant for genome-based research. Since the turn of the century, Chinese scientists have embarked on a "Long March" toward more intricate understanding of the complex agronomic traits of rice, spurred in part by the completion of the draft genome sequence of the indica variety 93-11 and a fine sequence analysis of chromosome 4 of the japonica variety Nipponbare.
Discovery Hints at Why Stress Is More Devastating for Some
Biology » Depression, Anxiety »
Rockefeller University − Some people take stress in stride; others are done in by it. New research at Rockefeller University has identified the molecular mechanisms of this so-called stress gap in mice with very similar genetic backgrounds — a finding that could lead researchers to better understand the development of psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression.
Exceptionally Well Preserved Insect Fossils from the Rhône Valley
Biology » Fossils, Insects »
PeerJ − In Bavaria, the Tithonian Konservat-Lagerstätte of lithographic limestone is well known as a result of numerous discoveries of emblematic fossils from that area (for example, Archaeopteryx). Now, for the first time, researchers have found fossil insects in the French equivalent of these outcrops - discoveries which include a new species representing the oldest known water treader.
Single Laser Stops Molecular Tumbling Motion Instantly
Physics » Raman, Molecule »
Northwestern University − In the quantum world, making the simple atom behave is one thing, but making the more complex molecule behave is another story. Now Northwestern University scientists have figured out an elegant way to stop a molecule from tumbling so that its potential for new applications can be harnessed: shine a single laser on a trapped molecule and it instantly cools to the temperature of outer space, stopping the rotation of the molecule.
Researchers Find Asian Camel Crickets Now Common in US Homes
Biology » Prey, Crickets »
North Carolina State University − With their long, spiky legs and their propensity for eating anything, including each other, camel crickets are the stuff of nightmares. And now research from North Carolina State University finds that non-native camel cricket species have spread into homes across the eastern United States. "The good news is that camel crickets don't bite or pose any kind of threat to humans," says Dr. Mary Jane Epps, a postdoctoral researcher at NC State and lead author of a paper about the research.
Nano-forests to Reveal Secrets of Cells
Biology » Membranes, Membrane »
Lund University − Vertical nanowires could be used for detailed studies of what happens on the surface of cells. The findings are important for pharmaceuticals research, among other applications. A group of researchers from Lund University in Sweden have managed to make artificial cell membranes form across a large number of vertical nanowires, known as a 'nano-forest'.
Childhood Trauma Could Lead to Adult Obesity
Psychology » Abuse, Childhood »
Karolinska Institutet − Being subjected to abuse during childhood entails a markedly increased risk of developing obesity as an adult. This is the conclusion of a meta-analysis carried out on previous studies, which included a total of 112,000 participants. The analysis was conducted by researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, and has been published in the journal Obesity Reviews.
Scientists Create Renewable Fossil Fuel Alternative Using Bacteria
Biology » Fatty, Fuel »
Imperial College London − The development is a step towards commercial production of a source of fuel that could one day provide an alternative to fossil fuels.
Over-the-counter Pain Reliever May Restore Immune Function in Old Age
Biology » Mice, Immune »
Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology − New research involving mice suggests that the key to more youthful immune function might already be in your medicine cabinet. In a report published in the Journal of Leukocyte Biology scientists show that macrophages from the lungs of old mice had different responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis than macrophages from young mice, but these changes were reversed by ibuprofen.
Modern Population Boom Traced to Pre-industrial Roots
Nature » Population, Stutz »
Emory Health Sciences − The foundation of the human population explosion, commonly attributed to a sudden surge in industrialization and public health during the 18th and 19th centuries, was actually laid as far back as 2,000 years ago, suggests an extended model of detailed demographic and archeological data. The Public Library of Science One (PLOS ONE) recently published the analytical framework developed by Aaron Stutz, an associate professor of anthropology at Emory University's Oxford College.
Surprising New Role for Calcium in Sensing Pain
Biology » Calcium, Sperm »
Duke University − DURHAM, N.C. -- When you accidentally touch a hot oven, you rapidly pull your hand away. Although scientists know the basic neural circuits involved in sensing and responding to such painful stimuli, they are still sorting out the molecular players.
Extinctions During Human Era Worse Than Thought
Biology » Extinction, Species »
Brown University − PROVIDENCE, R.I. [Brown University] — It's hard to comprehend how bad the current rate of species extinction around the world has become without knowing what it was before people came along. The newest estimate is that the pre-human rate was 10 times lower than scientists had thought, which means that the current level is 10 times worse.
Giant Garbage Patches Help Redefine Ocean Boundaries
Nature » Currents, Ocean »
American Institute of Physics − WASHINGTON, D.C., September 2, 2014 – The Great Pacific Garbage Patch is an area of environmental concern between Hawaii and California where the ocean surface is marred by scattered pieces of plastic, which outweigh plankton in that part of the ocean and pose risks to fish, turtles and birds that eat the trash. Scientists believe the garbage patch is but one of at least five, each located in the center of large, circular ocean currents called gyres that suck in and trap floating debris.
Rediscovering Our Mundane Moments Brings Us Unexpected Pleasure
Psychology » Events, Future »
Association for Psychological Science − We like to document the exciting and momentous occasions in our lives, but new research suggests there is value in capturing our more mundane, everyday experiences, which can bring us unexpected joy in the future.
The Disappearing Spoon Author Sam Kean Takes on the Megalodon Myth
Physics » Meeting, Dinosaurs »
American Chemical Society − WASHINGTON, September 2, 2014 — Best-selling author Sam Kean stops by Reactions this week to debunk the myth of the Megalodon, the 50-foot super shark that, despite what "Shark Week" may lead you to believe, is long extinct. Learn all about it at http://youtu.be/KhFygIoW_MA.
Engineers Develop New Sensor to Detect Tiny Individual Nanoparticles
Technology » Laser, Beam »
Washington University in St. Louis − Nanoparticles, engineered materials about a billionth of a meter in size, are around us every day. Although they are tiny, they can benefit human health, as in some innovative early cancer treatments, but they can also interfere with it through viruses, air pollution, traffic emissions, cosmetics, sunscreen and electronics.
Sierra Nevada Freshwater Runoff Could Drop 26% by 2100, UC Study Finds
Nature » Climate, Models »
University of California - Irvine − Irvine, Calif. — Freshwater runoff from the Sierra Nevada may decrease by as much as one-quarter by 2100 due to climate warming on the high slopes, according to scientists at UC Irvine and UC Merced. Accelerated plant growth at higher elevations caused by increasing temperatures would trigger more water absorption and evaporation, accounting for the projected runoff declines, the researchers add.
Family Dinners Good for Teens' Mental Health, Could Protect from Cyberbullying
Psychology » Cyberbullying, Bullying »
The JAMA Network Journals − Bottom Line: Cyberbullying was associated with mental health and substance use problems in adolescents but family dinners may help protect teens from the consequences of cyberbullying and also be beneficial for their mental health. Author: Frank J. Elgar, Ph.D., of McGill University, Montreal, Canada, and colleagues.

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