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Ecosystems Need Maths Not Random Nature to Survive
Biology » Ecosystems, Ecosystem »
University of Warwick − A previously unknown mathematical property has been found to be behind one of nature's greatest mysteries - how ecosystems survive. Found in nature and common to all ecosystems the property, Trophic Coherence, is a measure of how plant and animal life interact within the food web of each ecosystem - providing scientists with the first ever mathematical understanding of their architecture and how food webs are able to grow larger while also becoming more stable.
Study Reveals Major Websites Could Be Doing More to Promote Improved Password Security
Economics » Twitter, Messages »
University of Plymouth − Online giants including Amazon and LinkedIn could be doing far more to raise awareness of the need for better password practices among their users. Analysis by Professor Steven Furnell, Director of the Centre for Security, Communications and Network Research at Plymouth University, looked into the password security controls in place among 10 of the world's most visited websites.
Variety Is the Spice of Humble Moth's Sex Life
Biology » Female, Male »
University of Leeds − A small brown moth has one of the most complex sex lives in the insect world, new research has found. The twilight courtship rituals of the gold swift moth (Phymatopus hecta) can be seen in summer across northern Europe and Asia, from the British Isles to Japan.
Average Temperature in Finland Has Risen by More Than Two Degrees
Nature » Temperature, Dillon »
University of Eastern Finland − According to a recent University of Eastern Finland and Finnish Meteorological Institute study, the rise in the temperature has been especially fast over the past 40 years, with the temperature rising by more than 0.2 degrees per decade. "The biggest temperature rise has coincided with November, December and January. Temperatures have also risen faster than the annual average in the spring months, i.e., March, April and May. In the summer months, however, the temperature rise has not been as significant," says Professor Ari…
The Psychology of Gift-giving And Receiving
Psychology » Gift, Gifts »
Society for Personality and Social Psychology − Gift exchanges can reveal how people think about others, what they value and enjoy, and how they build and maintain relationships. Researchers are exploring various aspects of gift-giving and receiving, such as how givers choose gifts, how gifts are used by recipients, and how gifts impact the relationship between givers and receivers.
Fast-food Consumption Linked to Lower Test Score Gains in 8th Graders
Psychology » Food, Children »
Ohio State University − COLUMBUS, Ohio -- The amount of fast food children eat may be linked to how well they do in school, a new nationwide study suggests. Researchers found that the more frequently children reported eating fast food in fifth grade, the lower their growth in reading, math, and science test scores by the time they reached eighth grade.
Russian Scientists 'Map' Water Vapor in Martian Atmosphere
Nature » Atmosphere, Monsoon »
Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology − Russian scientists from the Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT), together with their French and American colleagues, have created a 'map' of the distribution of water vapour in Mars' atmosphere. Their research includes observations of seasonal variations in atmospheric concentrations using data collected over ten years by the Russian-French SPICAM spectrometer aboard the Mars Express orbiter. This is the longest period of observation and provides the largest volume of data about…
Study: an Alternative for Pain Control After Knee Replacement Surgery
Medicine » Knee, Pain »
Henry Ford Health System − DETROIT -- It's estimated that more than half of adults in the United States diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis will undergo knee replacement surgery. While improvements in implantable devices and surgical technique has made the procedure highly effective, pain control after surgery remains a common but persistent side effect for patients.
Methane Is Leaking from Permafrost Offshore Siberia
Nature » Permafrost, Arctic »
CAGE - Center for Arctic Gas Hydrate, Climate and Environment − Yamal Peninsula in Siberia has recently become world famous. Spectacular sinkholes, appeared as out of nowhere in the permafrost of the area, sparking the speculations of significant release of greenhouse gas methane into the atmosphere.
221 New Species Described by the California Academy of Sciences in 2014
Biology » Spiders, Spider »
California Academy of Sciences − SAN FRANCISCO (December 22, 2014) -- In 2014, researchers at the California Academy of Sciences added a whopping 221 new plant and animal species to our family tree, enriching our understanding of Earth's complex web of life and strengthening our ability to make informed conservation decisions. The new species include 110 ants, 16 beetles, three spiders, 28 fishes, 24 sea slugs, two marine worms, 9 barnacles, two octocorals, 25 plants, one waterbear, and one tiny mammal. More than a dozen Academy scientists--along with…
Suppressing a Protein Reduces Cancer Spread in Mice
Medicine » Melanoma, Tgfβ »
Brown University − PROVIDENCE, R.I. [Brown University] -- Scientists have found that decreasing the levels of or blocking a specific protein commonly found in humans and many other animals allowed them to slow the spread of two different kinds of cancer to the lungs of mice. The research indicates that when the protein becomes dysregulated it helps pave the way for cancers to spread and suggests that addressing such dysregulation is a lead worth pursuing in fighting metastasis.
New Technology Makes Tissues, Someday Maybe Organs
Medicine » Cells, Scaffolds »
Brown University − PROVIDENCE, R.I. [Brown University] -- A new instrument could someday build replacement human organs the way electronics are assembled today: with precise picking and placing of parts.
Researchers Discover New Genetic Anomalies in Lung Cancer
Medicine » Ntrk1, Doebele »
University of Michigan Health System − ANN ARBOR, Mich. -- Developing effective treatments for lung cancer has been challenging, in part because so many genetic mutations play a role in the disease.
Ninety-eight New Beetle Species Discovered in Indonesia
Nature » Genus, Species »
Pensoft Publishers − Ninety-eight new species of the beetle genus Trigonopterus have been described from Java, Bali and other Indonesian islands. Museum scientists from Germany and their local counterparts used an innovative approach for rapid collection of biodiversity data to beat the fast rates of extinction and disappearance of rainforests. A species named in honor of Sir David Attenborough, as well as 98 others can be viewed by everyone in the open access journal ZooKeys.
Family Criticizing Your Weight? You Might Add More Pounds
Psychology » Weight, Obese »
University of Waterloo − Women whose loved ones are critical of their weight tend to put on even more pounds, says a new study on the way people's comments affect our health. Professor Christine Logel from Renison University College at the University of Waterloo led the study, which appears in the December issue of the journal Personal Relationships.
Scientists Reveal Breakthrough in Optical Fiber Communications
Technology » Lasers, Laser »
University of Southampton − Researchers from the University of Southampton have revealed a breakthrough in optical fibre communications. Academics from the University's Optoelectronics Research Centre (ORC) have collaborated with colleagues at Eblana Photonics Inc, in Ireland, to develop an approach that enables direct modulation of laser currents to be used to generate highly advanced modulation format signals.
The State of Shale
Nature » Wastewater, Disposal »
University of Pittsburgh − PITTSBURGH--University of Pittsburgh researchers have shared their findings from three studies related to shale gas in a recent special issue of the journal Energy Technology, edited by Götz Veser, the Nickolas A. DeCecco Professor of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering in Pitt's Swanson School of Engineering.
Neuroscientists Identify Brain Mechanisms That Predict Generosity in Children
Psychology » Children, Decety »
University of Chicago − University of Chicago developmental neuroscientists have found specific brain markers that predict generosity in children. Those neural markers appear to be linked to both social and moral evaluation processes.
Lost Memories Might Be Able to Be Restored, New UCLA Study Indicates
Biology » Memories, Memory »
University of California - Los Angeles − New UCLA research indicates that lost memories can be restored. The findings offer some hope for patients in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease. For decades, most neuroscientists have believed that memories are stored at the synapses -- the connections between brain cells, or neurons -- which are destroyed by Alzheimer's disease. The new study provides evidence contradicting the idea that long-term memory is stored at synapses.
A 'GPS' for Molecules
Chemistry » Enzyme, Enzymes »
University of Bonn − In everyday life, the global positioning system (GPS) can be employed to reliably determine the momentary location of one en route to the desired destination. Scientists from the Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry of the University of Bonn have now developed a molecular "GPS" with which the whereabouts of metal ions in enzymes can be reliably determined. Such ions play important roles in all corners of metabolism and synthesis for biological products. The "molecular GPS" is now being featured in the journal…
Televised Medical Talk Shows: Health Education Or Entertainment?
Psychology » Medical, Ukcat »
University of Alberta Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry − (Edmonton) For millions of people around the world, televised medical talk shows have become a daily viewing ritual. Programs such as The Dr. Oz Show and The Doctors have attracted massive followings as charismatic hosts discuss new medical research and therapies while offering viewers their own recommendations for better health. For show producers it's a winning ratings formula, but for viewers eager for a healthier life, the results aren't so clear cut.
A Polymorphism And the Bacteria Inside of Us Help Dictate Inflammation, Antitumor Activity
Medicine » Tumors, Tumor »
The Wistar Institute − PHILADELPHIA - (Dec. 19, 2014) - A common polymorphism - a variation in a person's DNA sequence that is found with regularity in the general population - can lead to a chain of events that dictates how a tumor will progress in certain types of cancer, including a form of breast cancer as well as ovarian cancer, according to new research from The Wistar Institute that was published online by the journal Cancer Cell.
Parents' BMI Decreases with Child Involved in School-based, Community Obesity Intervention
Medicine » Children, Parents »
Tufts University, Health Sciences Campus − [Boston, MA December18, 2014] Parents of children involved in an elementary school-based community intervention to prevent obesity appear to share in its health benefits. A new analysis of Shape Up Somerville: Eat Smart Play Hard™ shows an association between being exposed to the intervention as a parent and a modest decrease in body mass index (BMI) compared to parents in two similar control communities. The study led by researchers at the Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy at Tufts University and the…
Yellowstone's Thermal Springs - Their Colors Unveiled
Biology » Roadwork, Safety »
The Optical Society − WASHINGTON D.C., December 19, 2014 - Researchers at Montana State University and Brandenburg University of Applied Sciences in Germany have created a simple mathematical model based on optical measurements that explains the stunning colors of Yellowstone National Park's hot springs and can visually recreate how they appeared years ago, before decades of tourists contaminated the pools with make-a-wish coins and other detritus.
AGU Talk: Scaling Climate Change Communication for Behavior Change
Technology » Mooc, Museum »
Stanford University − In a previous randomized controlled trial, Stanford University researchers developed two curricula for Girl Scouts to use energy more efficiently: one on energy use at home, and the other in transportation and food. Both courses were effective for girls in the short term, and the home energy course was effective for girls in the long term and for parents in the short term.
Atom-thick CCD Could Capture Images
Technology » Flexible, Memory »
Rice University − HOUSTON - (Dec. 19, 2014) - An atomically thin material developed at Rice University may lead to the thinnest-ever imaging platform. Synthetic two-dimensional materials based on metal chalcogenide compounds could be the basis for superthin devices, according to Rice researchers. One such material, molybdenum disulfide, is being widely studied for its light-detecting properties, but copper indium selenide (CIS) also shows extraordinary promise.
Helping Parents Understand Infant Sleep Patterns
Psychology » Sleep, Night »
Penn State − Most parents are not surprised by the irregularity of a newborn infant's sleep patterns, but by six months or so many parents wonder if something is wrong with their baby or their sleeping arrangements if the baby is not sleeping through the night. Healthcare providers, specifically nurse practitioners, can help parents understand what "normal" sleep patterns are for their child, according to researchers.
Hermit Creepy Crawlies: Two New Taxa of Wood-feeding Cockroach from China
Biology » Mountain, Province »
Pensoft Publishers − Scientists from the Southwest University, Chongqing, China have found a new species and a new subspecies of cockroach. What makes these creepy crawlies distinctive from the cockroaches most of us know is that they don't infest human houses, on the contrary they prefer to live a hermit life drilling logs, hidden away from human eyes. The study was published in the open access journal ZooKeys.
A Vegetarian Carnivorous Plant
Biology » Prey, Webs »
Oxford University Press − Carnivorous plants catch and digest tiny animals in order and derive benefits for their nutrition. Interestingly the trend towards vegetarianism seems to overcome carnivorous plants as well. The aquatic carnivorous bladderwort, which can be found in many lakes and ponds worldwide, does not only gain profit from eating little animals but also by consuming algae and pollen grains. This results in survival in aquatic habitats where prey animals are rare, and in increased fitness if the animals and algae are caught in a…
Epithelial Tube Contraction
Biology » Alzheimer, Disease »
National University of Singapore − Researchers at the Mechanobiology Institute (MBI), National University of Singapore (NUS) have identified a novel mechanosensitive regulation of epithelial tube contraction. These findings are published on 19 December 2014 in Current Biology (Pei Yi Tan and Ronen Zaidel-Bar. Transient membrane localization of SPV-1 drives cyclical actomyosin contractions in the C. elegans spermatheca, Current Biology, 19 Dec 2014, doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2014.11.033)

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