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Seeing the Forest And the Trees, All 3 Trillion of Them
Nature » Trees, Tree »
Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies − A new Yale-led study estimates that there are more than 3 trillion trees on Earth, about seven and a half times more than some previous estimates. But the total number of trees has plummeted by roughly 46 percent since the start of human civilization, the study estimates. Using a combination of satellite imagery, forest inventories, and supercomputer technologies, the international team of researchers was able to map tree populations worldwide at the square-kilometer level.
Reward, Aversion Behaviors Activated Through Same Brain Pathways
Medicine » Cocaine, Addiction »
Washington University School of Medicine − New research may help explain why drug treatments for addiction and depression don't work for some patients. The conditions are linked to reward and aversion responses in the brain. Working in mice, researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have discovered brain pathways linked to reward and aversion behaviors are in such close proximity that they unintentionally could be activated at the same time.
Saving Coral Reefs Depends More on Protecting Fish Than Safeguarding Locations
Nature » Fish, Reef »
Wildlife Conservation Society − A new study by WCS (Wildlife Conservation Society) has found that coral reef diversity 'hotspots' in the southwestern Indian Ocean rely more on the biomass of fish than where they are located, a conclusion that has major implications for management decisions to protect coral reef ecosystems.
Evidence That Earth's First Mass Extinction Was Caused by Critters Not Catastrophe
Biology » Extinction, Mass »
Vanderbilt University − NASHVILLE, Tenn. - In the popular mind, mass extinctions are associated with catastrophic events, like giant meteorite impacts and volcanic super-eruptions. But the world's first known mass extinction, which took place about 540 million years ago, now appears to have had a more subtle cause: evolution itself.
Studies Show Exercise Is Safe, Improves Quality of Life for Pulmonary Hypertension Patients
Medicine » Failure, Heart »
UT Southwestern Medical Center − DALLAS - September 2, 2015 - Exercise training for patients with pulmonary hypertension was shown to be safe and to improve quality of life, according to an analysis by UT Southwestern Medical Center cardiologists of studies involving more than 400 participants.
Penn Researchers Report Long-term Remissions in First Personalized Cell Therapy Trial
Medicine » Cells, Leukemia »
University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine − PHILADELPHIA - Eight of 14 patients in the first trial of the University of Pennsylvania's personalized cellular therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) responded to the therapy, with some complete remissions continuing past four and a half years. These results, published today in Science Translational Medicine, represent the most mature data from clinical trials of an approach known as CTL019, developed by a team from Penn's Abramson Cancer Center and the Perelman School of Medicine.
Mutated P53 Tumor Suppressor Protein Uses Epigenetics to Drive Aggressive Cancer Growth
Medicine » P53, Cell »
University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine − PHILADELPHIA - Aggressive cancer growth and alterations in gene activity without changes in DNA sequence (epigenetics) are associated with mutant p53 proteins, according to new research from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. The international team describes their results and implications for difficult-to-treat cancers this week in Nature online ahead of print. The investigation was led by Shelley Berger, PhD, the Daniel S. Och University Professor in the departments of Cell & Developmental Biology, Genetics, and Biology, along with…
'Authenticity' in Mexican Restaurants Depends on Views of Managers And Patrons
Economics » Family, Girls »
University of Missouri-Columbia − COLUMBIA, Mo. - Food, from its production to its consumption, is a strong cultural symbol and often is a direct expression of group identity. According to a study published by Stephen Christ, a University of Missouri sociologist, food also can mark the boundaries of culture, tradition and authenticity. Whether or not a Mexican restaurant is considered "authentic" is completely subjective; yet, Christ believes that authentic Mexican restaurants, while symbolizing boundaries between private cultural and ethnic customs, also function as sites for public display…
The Springy Mechanics of Large And Small Gecko Toe Pad Adhesion
Biology » Geckos, Gecko »
University of Massachusetts at Amherst − AMHERST, Mass. - Geckos employ dry adhesion, using a combination of microscopic hairs on their toe pads, as well as other aspects of internal anatomy, to climb vertical walls and run across ceilings, a skill that has long fascinated scientists. In particular, it's a mystery how some species as much as 100 times heavier than others can use adhesion so effectively.
Hiring More Minority Teachers in Schools Gives Fairer Perception of Discipline
Economics » Students, Schools »
University of Kansas − SAN FRANCISCO -- Black students in schools with more black teachers have more positive attitudes and higher perceptions of fairness in school discipline, according to a new study that includes a University of Kansas researcher. The study also found white students who attend schools with a higher number of minority teachers are more likely to believe discipline from school officials is fair as well.
The Power of Film
Medicine » Documentary, Fracking »
University of Iowa − Social scientists have long argued documentary films are powerful tools for social change. But a University of Iowa sociologist and his co-researchers are the first to use the Internet and social media to systematically show how a documentary film shaped public perception and ultimately led to municipal bans on hydraulic fracking.
Study: 'Guilting' Teens into Exercise Won't Increase Activity
Psychology » Juvonen, Students »
University of Georgia − Athens, Ga. - Just like attempts at influencing hairstyles or clothing can backfire, adults who try to guilt middle-schoolers into exercising won't get them to be any more active, according to a new study by University of Georgia researchers.
Supply Signals Critical to Firms' Profitability
Nature » Ree, Rees »
University of California - Riverside − RIVERSIDE, Calif. -- Advance supply signals, such as financial health and production viability, contain rich information on supplier conditions. When and how these signals should be used is critical for improving firms' forecast and profitability. A recent paper, "Dynamic Supply Risk Management with Signal-Based Forecast, Multi-Sourcing, and Discretionary Selling," provides mathematical tools and management principles on this issue.
CT Scan of Earth Links Deep Mantle Plumes with Volcanic Hotspots
Nature » Mantle, Plumes »
University of California - Berkeley − University of California, Berkeley, seismologists have produced for the first time a sharp, three-dimensional scan of Earth's interior that conclusively connects plumes of hot rock rising through the mantle with surface hotspots that generate volcanic island chains like Hawaii, Samoa and Iceland.
Decade-long Amazon Rainforest Burn Yields New Insight into Wildfires
Nature » Amazon, Drought »
University of Colorado at Boulder − The longest and largest controlled burn experiment ever conducted in the Amazon rainforest has yielded new insight into the ways that tropical forests succumb to--and bounce back from--large-scale wildfires, according to new research co-authored by a University of Colorado Boulder professor.
Tracking Down the Causes of Alzheimer's
Biology » Memory, Long-Term »
University of Basel − Genes are not only important for regular memory performance, but also for the development of Alzheimer's disease. Researchers at the University of Basel now identified a specific group of genes that plays a central role in both processes. This group of molecules controls the concentration of calcium ions inside the cell. Their results appear in the current issue of the journal JAMA Psychiatry.
Texas A&M Team Finds Neuron Responsible for Alcoholism
Biology » Neurons, Neuron »
Texas A&M University − Scientists have pinpointed a population of neurons in the brain that influences whether one drink leads to two, which could ultimately lead to a cure for alcoholism and other addictions.
Stanford Soil Sleuths Solve Mystery of Arsenic-contaminated Water
Nature » Arsenic, Groundwater »
Stanford's School of Earth, Energy & Environmental Sciences − Can water ever be too clean? If the intent is to store it underground, the answer, surprisingly, is yes. In a new study, Stanford scientists have shown that recycled water percolating into underground storage aquifers in Southern California picked up trace amounts of arsenic because the water was too pure.
First Ancient Genome Recovered from the Mediterranean Area
Archaeology » Neolithic, Populations »
Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) − An international team of researchers has sequenced the first complete genome of an Iberian farmer, which is also the first ancient genome from the entire Mediterranean area. This new genome allows to know the distinctive genetic changes of Neolithic migration in Southern Europe which led to the abandonment of the hunter-gatherer way of life. The study is led by the Institute of Evolutionary Biology, a joint center of the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) and the Universitat Pompeu Fabra (Barcelona, Spain), in collaboration…
Scientists See Motor Neurons 'Walking' in Real Time
Biology » Spinal, Motor »
Salk Institute − LA JOLLA--When you're taking a walk around the block, your body is mostly on autopilot--you don't have to consciously think about alternating which leg you step with or which muscles it takes to lift a foot and put it back down. That's thanks to a set of cells in your spinal cord that help translate messages between your brain and your motor neurons, which control muscles.
For 2-D Boron, It's All About That Base
Chemistry » Fibers, Chen »
Rice University − Rice University scientists have theoretically determined that the properties of atom-thick sheets of boron depend on where those atoms land. Calculation of the atom-by-atom energies involved in creating a sheet of boron revealed that the metal substrate - the surface upon which two-dimensional materials are grown in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) furnace - would make all the difference.
Seal Pups Listen for Long Distance Calls to Locate Their Mothers
Biology » Hearing, Sound »
PLOS − Antarctic fur seal pups identify the mother's vocal pitch at longer distance and use other components of the vocal signature at closer range to identify their mother in densely populated breeding colonies, according to a study published September 2, 2015 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Thierry Aubin from University of Paris-Sud and colleagues.
Only Above-water Microbes Play a Role in Cave Development
Physics » Hydrogen, Bonding »
Penn State − Only the microbes located above the water's surface contribute to the development of hydrogen-sulfide-rich caves, suggests an international team of researchers. Since 2004, researchers have been studying the Frasassi cave system, an actively developing limestone cave system located 1500 feet underground in central Italy. Limestone caves can form when solid limestone dissolves after coming in contact with certain types of acids. The resulting void is the cave system.
Many North American Birds May Lose Part of Range Under Climate Change Scenarios
Nature » Bird, Species »
PLOS − Over 50% of nearly 600 surveyed bird species may lose more than half of their current geographic range across three climate change scenarios through the end of the century in North America, according to a study published September 2, 2015 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Gary Langham and colleagues from the National Audubon Society.
Animal Without Synapses Feeds by External Digestion Using Global, Local Cellular Control
Biology » Cilia, Trichoplax »
PLOS − A multicellular marine animal without organs, Trichoplax's feeding behavior may include cellular coordination, resulting in external food digestion, according to a study published September 2, 2015 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Carolyn Smith and colleagues from the National Institute of Health in Bethesda, MD.
Scientists Discover Key Clues in Turtle Evolution
Biology » Eunotosaurus, Turtle »
New York Institute of Technology − A research team led by NYIT scientist Gaberiel Bever has determined that a 260-million year-old fossil species found in South Africa's Karoo Basin provides a long awaited glimpse into the murky origins of turtles. Bever, describes the extinct reptile, named Eunotosaurus africanus, as the earliest known branch of the turtle tree of life.
Typhoon Kilo Moving Through Northwestern Pacific Ocean
Nature » Center, Flight »
NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center − NOAA's GOES-West satellite spotted the eye in a strong Typhoon Kilo moving through the Northwestern Pacific Ocean. At 11 a.m. EDT on September 2, Typhoon Kilo's maximum sustained winds were near 90 knots (103.6 mph/166.7 kph). It was centered near 24.3 North and 179.1 East, about 762 nautical miles east-northeast of Wake Island. Kilo was moving very slowly at 3 knots (3.4 mph/5.5 kph).
NASA Sees Tropical Storm Fred Losing Its Punch
Nature » Pam, Rapidscat »
NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center − Tropical Storm Fred is losing its punch. Satellite imagery shows that there are no strong thunderstorms developing in the tropical storm indicating that the storm is weakening.
NASA Sees Shapeless Tropical Depression 14E
Nature » Depression, Tropical »
NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center − Tropical Depression 14E can't get its act together and still appears as a shapeless, asymmetric mass of clouds and thunderstorms on infrared imagery from NASA's Aqua satellite.
NASA Sees a Weaker Tropical Storm Ignacio North of Hawaiian Islands
Nature » Ignacio, Cphc »
NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center − When NASA's Terra satellite passed over Tropical Storm Ignacio on Sept. 1 it gathered cloud and wind data on the weakening storm. Late on August 31 at 11 p.m. EDT the RapidScat instrument that flies aboard the International Space Station observed Ignacio's strongest winds surrounded the center of storm near 30 meters per second (108 kph/67 mph). Those winds weakened over the next 36 hours.

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