|Midlife Changes in Alzheimer's Biomarkers May Predict Dementia|
Medicine » Amyloid, Tau »
Washington University School of Medicine − Studying brain scans and cerebrospinal fluid of healthy adults, scientists have shown that changes in key biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease during midlife may help identify those who will develop dementia years later, according to new research. The study, at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, is published July 6 in JAMA Neurology.
|Study Provides New Insights into the Genetics of Drug-resistant Fungal Infections|
Medicine » Albicans, Yeast »
Worcester Polytechnic Institute − Worcester, Mass. - A study by a multidisciplinary research team, co-directed by Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI), offers new insights into how virulent fungi adapt through genetic modifications to fight back against the effects of medication designed to block their spread, and how that battle leaves them temporarily weakened. These insights may provide clues to new ways to treat notoriously difficult-to-cure fungal infections like thrush and vaginitis.
|Experts Express Concern over Cyclone Trends in the British-Irish Isles|
Nature » Africa, Diffenbaugh »
Wiley − By studying climate data in the British-Irish Isles over a 142-year period, researchers have confirmed the important role of cyclones. Seasonal precipitation totals were strongly related to cyclone frequency, especially during summer.
|Cactus Scientists Offer Insights to Solve Future Global Agricultural Challenges|
Nature » Kort, Cam »
Wiley − Researchers have provided a new roadmap for tackling future agricultural production issues by using solutions that involve crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), a specialized type of photosynthesis that enhances the efficiency by which plants use water.
|Risk of Interbreeding Due to Climate Change Lower Than Expected|
Nature » Species, Change »
University of Washington − One of the questions raised by climate change has been whether it could cause more species of animals to interbreed. Two species of flying squirrel have already produced mixed offspring because of climate change, and there have been reports of a hybrid polar bear and grizzly bear cub (known as a grolar bear, or a pizzly).
|Protein Suggests a New Strategy to Thwart Infection|
Biology » Protein, Yfcm »
University of Wisconsin-Madison − MADISON - The newfound ability of a protein of the intestines and lungs to distinguish between human cells and the cells of bacterial invaders could underpin new strategies to fight infections.
|Brain Imaging Shows How Children Inherit Their Parents' Anxiety|
Biology » Anxiety, Anxious »
University of Wisconsin-Madison − Madison, Wis. -- In rhesus monkey families - just as in their human cousins - anxious parents are more likely to have anxious offspring. And a new study in an extended family of monkeys provides important insights into how the risk of developing anxiety and depression is passed from parents to children.
|Fundamental Beliefs About Atherosclerosis Overturned|
Medicine » Smooth, Uptake »
University of Virginia Health System − Doctors' efforts to battle the dangerous atherosclerotic plaques that build up in our arteries and cause heart attacks and strokes are built on several false beliefs about the fundamental composition and formation of the plaques, new research from the University of Virginia School of Medicine shows. These new discoveries will force researchers to reassess their approaches to developing treatments and discard some of their basic assumptions about atherosclerosis, commonly known as hardening of the arteries.
|Study Explains How Dengue Virus Adapts as It Travels, Increasing Chances for Outbreaks|
Medicine » Dengue, Virus »
University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston − A researcher from The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston is an integral member of a collaborative group that is the first to explain the mechanisms that the Dengue virus has developed to optimize its ability to cause outbreaks as it travels across the globe to new places and revisits old ones. An early online version of this paper detailing the findings has recently been published in Science.
|Killer Sea Snail a Target for New Drugs|
Biology » Drug, Drugs »
University of Queensland − University of Queensland pain treatment researchers have discovered thousands of new peptide toxins hidden deep within the venom of just one type of Queensland cone snail. Researchers hope the new molecules will be promising leads for new drugs to treat pain and cancer.
|Blacklegged Tick Populations Have Expanded Via Migration, Penn Biologists Show|
Biology » Ticks, Lyme »
University of Pennsylvania − Lyme disease cases are on the rise, with diagnoses occurring in areas that were historically Lyme-free. Scientists attribute the spread to the fact that populations of blacklegged ticks, which carry the bacteria that causes the disease, now flourish in areas once thought to be devoid of ticks.
|Tundra Study Uncovers Impact of Climate Warming in the Arctic|
Nature » Tundra, Carbon »
University of Edinburgh − Significant changes in one of the Earth's most important ecosystems are not only a symptom of climate change, but may fuel further warming, research suggests. One of the biggest studies to date of key vegetation in the Arctic tundra provides strong evidence that dramatic changes in the region are being driven by climate warming.
|Study Shows Grey Squirrels Are Quick Learners|
Biology » Cuisine, Pbdes »
University of Exeter − They may be viewed by some as an invasive species or a commonplace pest of public parks, but a new study from the University of Exeter has shown that grey squirrels are actually quick learners capable of adapting tactics to improve efficiency and reap the best rewards. To test the animals' intelligence and mental flexibility researchers invented a task involving a box with 12 sunken wells, four of which were hollow. Of the four, two contained hidden hazelnuts.
|Ion Channel Mechanics Yield Insights into Optogenetics Experiments|
Biology » Ion, Channel »
University of California - Santa Cruz − Optogenetics techniques, which allow scientists to map and control nerve cells using light stimulation, are being used to study neural circuits in the brain with unprecedented precision. This revolutionary technology relies on light-sensitive proteins such as channelrhodopsins, and researchers at UC Santa Cruz have now determined the molecular mechanism involved in the light-induced activation of one of these proteins.
|Epigenetic Driver of Glioblastoma Provides New Therapeutic Target|
Medicine » Genes, Cell »
University of California - San Diego − Cancer's ability to grow unchecked is often attributed to cancer stem cells, a small fraction of cancer cells that have the capacity to grow and multiply indefinitely. How cancer stem cells retain this property while the bulk of a tumor's cells do not remains largely unknown. Using human tumor samples and mouse models, researchers at University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and Moores Cancer Center discovered that cancer stem cell properties are determined by epigenetic changes -- chemical modifications cells use
|Structural Shift Elucidated with Large-scale Atomic Simulations|
Chemistry » Crystal, Liquid »
Springer − Iron-nickel alloys are ubiquitous: they are found at the earth's core and in meteorites. What is fascinating about such alloys is that their inner structure can change with rapid temperature swings. Heated up above 730 °C (1,340 °F), these alloys enter what is referred to as an austenitic phase. Alternatively, they can be turned into very hard alloys, referred to as a martensitic phase, by subjecting them to extremely rapid cooling. Now a team of scientists from Germany has, for the first time,
|Reducing Stroke Damage May Be Next for OCT Technology Widely Used in Vision Healthcare|
Medicine » Stroke, Brain »
SPIE--International Society for Optics and Photonics − BELLINGHAM, Washington, USA, and CARDIFF, UK -- An optical technology already widely used in ophthalmology and other medical fields holds potential to reveal how blood flows in the brain during stroke, providing information that could someday guide new treatments and reduce stroke-induced damage to the brain.
|Study Finds People over 65 with Traumatic Brain Injuries Hospitalized 4 Times as Often as Younger People|
Medicine » Seat, Drowning »
St. Michael's Hospital − TORONTO, July 6, 2015--A disproportionate number of people hospitalized in Canada with traumatic brain injuries are 65 years or older, a new study from St. Michael's Hospital has found. While that age group represents only 14 per cent of the Canadian population, it accounted for 38 per cent of hospitalizations for TBI between 2006-07 and 2010-11, according to the study published in the Journal of Trauma. That's 3.8 times greater than for people under 65.
|Older Patients with Traumatic Spinal Cord Injuries Less Likely to Get Surgery|
Medicine » Cent, Cord »
St. Michael's Hospital − TORONTO, July 6, 2015--Older patients with traumatic spinal cord injuries are less likely to receive surgery compared with younger patients and they experience a significant lag between injury and surgery, according to new research by an orthopedic surgeon at St. Michael's Hospital.
|Does That 'Green' Plasticizer Make My PVC Flexible Enough for You?|
Physics » Hydrogen, Energy »
Springer − What gives plastic objects their flexibility and reduces their brittleness is the concentration of plasticiser. For example, a chemical solvent of the phthalate family called DOP is often used. The trouble is there are concerns that phthalates present health risks. So there is a demand for more alternatives. Now, scientists from China have examined the effect of using DEHHP, a new eco-friendly plasticiser, used in combination with PVC. For a plasticiser to work, there has to be adequate hydrogen bonding with the plastic.
|Adolescents Who View Medical Marijuana Ads More Likely to Use the Drug, Study Finds|
Psychology » Marijuana, Alcohol »
RAND Corporation − Adolescents who saw advertising for medical marijuana were more likely to either report using marijuana or say they planned to use the substance in the future, according to a new RAND Corporation study.
|How the Mammoth Got Its Wool: Genetic Changes Are Identified|
Biology » Variants, Genetic »
Penn State − Evolutionary change in a gene resurrected in the lab from the extinct woolly mammoth altered the gene's temperature sensitivity and likely was part of a suite of adaptations that allowed the mammoth to survive in harsh arctic environments, according to new research. In a study published in Cell Reports on July 2, 2015, researchers determined the whole-genome sequence of two woolly mammoths and three modern Asian elephants, predicted the function of genetic changes found only in the mammoths, and then experimentally validated the
|Big City Life: New Leafhopper Species Found on a Threatened Grass in New Jersey|
Biology » Zealand, Species »
Pensoft Publishers − Andrew Hicks from the Museum of Natural History at the University of Colorado and his team discovered a previously unknown leafhopper species in the New Jersey Pine Barrens, located just east of the megalopolis that extends from New York City to Washington, DC. This was the first time an insect has been reported from the state-listed threatened pinebarren smokegrass, Muhlenbergia torreyana. The study can be found in the open-access journal ZooKeys.
|NASA Sees Tropical Storm Linfa Exiting Northern Philippines|
Nature » China, Hainan »
NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center − Tropical Storm Linfa moved over Luzon in the northern Philippines over July 4 and by early July 5, NASA's Aqua satellite saw the storm moving into the South China Sea.
|NASA Sees Nangka Become a Typhoon|
Nature » Airs, Cloud »
NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center − Tropical Storm Nangka strengthened to a typhoon in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean just after NASA's Aqua satellite passed overhead on July 6. Infrared data from the AIRS instrument showed very cold cloud top temperatures indicating strong thunderstorms within the tropical cyclone.
|NASA's Infrared Look at Strengthening Typhoon Chan-Hom|
Nature » Airs, Cloud »
NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center − During the early morning hours on July 6, Chan-Hom was a strong tropical storm. Infrared data from NASA's Aqua satellite showed very powerful thunderstorms that hinted at intensification, and later in the day, Chan-Hom became a typhoon.
|Researchers Develop World's Most Sensitive Test to Detect Infectious Disease, Superbugs|
Biology » Detection, Arlington »
McMaster University − Infectious diseases such as hepatitis C and some of the world's deadliest superbugs--C. difficile and MRSA among them--could soon be detected much earlier by a unique diagnostic test, designed to easily and quickly identify dangerous pathogens.
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